تمام عبدالله فالح البلوي

 


      
 
الاسم الاول: 
تمام
اسم العائلة: 
البلوي
الدرجة العلمية: 
دكتوراة
مجال الدراسة: 
الطب والخدمات الصحية
المؤسسة التعليمية: 
Bangor University

 

 

مجال التميز

تميز دراسي وبحثي 

 

 

البحوث المنشورة

 

البحث (1):

 

عنوان البحث:

Exercise As A Reward: Self-Paced Exercise Perception And Delay Discounting In Comparison With Food And Money

رابط إلى البحث:

Click here 

تاريخ النشر:

4 December 2018

موجز عن البحث:

Exercise is an important health behavior. Expressed reasons for participation are often delayed outcomes i.e. health threats and benefits, but also enjoyment. However, we do not know how people evaluate exercise as a reward. The value of rewards diminish the longer we have to wait for them and the discounting effect can undermine decision-making. Here, we investigated delay-discounting of exercise perception and its valuation with time delays; we conducted self-paced exercise sessions on treadmill and compared the discounting rates of exercise (kex) with those of established rewards of food (kfo) and money (km). Outcomes show, that young, moderately active participants (n=70) preferred walking/running intensity with low to moderate cardiovascular strain and light perceived exertion. Delay discounting rates (k) indicated that exercise was discounted like other consumable rewards at the same rate as food and more rapidly than monetary rewards. Significant associations were detected of kex with preferred speed and with extrinsic exercise motivation. Exercise training (n=16) reduced kex specifically, not affecting kfo. Our studies show, that participants perceived and discounted self-paced walking/running like a consumable reward. Exercise discounting was quicker in individuals who preferred lower speeds being less physically active and exercise training reduced the decay rate of exercise specifically. 

 

 

المؤتمرات العلمية:

 

المؤتمر (1):

 

عنوان المؤتمر:

4th European Congress Of The ER-WCPT On Physiotherapy 

تاريخ الإنعقاد:

11 - 12 November 2016 

مكان الإنعقاد:

Liverpool, UK

طبيعة المشاركة:

Poster presentation

عنوان المشاركة:

Investigation Of The Reward Value Of Exercise In Comparison With Food And Money 

ملخص المشاركة:

Relevance: Despite the evidence supporting the health benefits of physical activity, studies show that there is low adherence level to exercise schemes (Dishman 1988). Activities that lead to the individual feeling ‘good’ are more likely to facilitate future participation (Parfitt et al., 2006). However, whether sedentary and active individuals perceive exercise as rewarding as other established rewards is not well investigated.

Purpose: This study aims to investigate the reward value of exercise using a discounting paradigm and to compare the discounting parameters of exercise with established rewards of food and money (Rasmussen et al., 2010). Moreover, the exercise discounting decay rates (k), as well as those of food and money, are compared between sedentary and active people. Discounting parameters will be analysed in association with body characteristics to find influencing factors of reward perception of exercise as well as for food and money.

Methods/analysis: A cross sectional study was performed for 21 healthy subjects (nine females and 12 males), with a mean age of 31.26 (SD =  ± 12.70). They underwent three exercise trials on a treadmill to determine their optimal self-selected exercise settings, then answered the delay discounting task for exercise, money and food on a PC. A battery of psychological and health questionnaires were also used to characterize individuals for data analysis, correlation coefficient analysis and one-way ANOVA in SPSS were used.

Results: The results show that exercise is discounted in a hyperbolic manner like established rewards, food and money. The goodness of fit of the indifference points using a hyperbolic function (R2) for money, exercise and food were 0.884, 0.857 and 0.91 respectively. Exercise discounting was not significantly different to those of money and food. Moreover, exercise k values were not different to other commodities, food and money. This indicates that exercise is discounted in similar fashion like money and food which are known to be perceived as rewarding. Using correlation analysis, body fat percentage and the mean k values for money and food were positively correlated, r = 0.451, P = 0.026 and r = 0.426, P = 0.027. In contrast, body fat percentage and mean k values for exercise were negatively correlated, r = −0.396, P = 0.039.

Discussion and conclusions: Exercise is discounted like established rewards of money and food with k values similar to the other tested modalities. Subjects with higher body fat percentages revealed higher discounting rates for money and food; on the other hand, they shown lower discounting rates for exercise. These results could be interpreted as indication that exercise can be perceived as a reward if adjusted for pleasantness and that body characteristics influence the kinetic of exercise discounting.

Impact and implications: This conclusion might be crucial for understanding the reasons after low exercise adherence rates and for improving exercise participation.

Funding acknowledgement: The Saudi Ministry of Health has funded this project and related future projects. 

 

 

المؤتمر (2):

 

عنوان المؤتمر:

ICP 2018: International Conference On Physiotherapy 

تاريخ الإنعقاد:

18 – 19 January 2018

مكان الإنعقاد:

London, UK

طبيعة المشاركة:

Poster presentation

عنوان المشاركة:

Self-Selected Intensity And Discounting Rates Of Exercise In Comparison With Food And Money In Healthy Adults

ملخص المشاركة:

Background: Exercise is widely acknowledged as a highly important health behavior, which reduces risks related to lifestyle diseases like type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease. However, exercise adherence is low in high-risk groups and sedentary lifestyle is more the norm than the exception. Expressed reasons for exercise participation are often based on delayed outcomes related to health threats and benefits but also enjoyment. Whether exercise is perceived as rewarding is well established in animal literature but the evidence is sparse in humans. Additionally, the question how stable any reward is perceived with time delays is an important question influencing decision-making (in favor or against a behavior). For the modality exercise, this has not been examined before. We, therefore, investigated the discounting of pre-established self-selected exercise compared with established rewards of food and money with a computer-based discounting paradigm. We hypothesized that exercise will be discounted like an established reward (food and money); however, we expect that the discounting rate is similar to a consumable reward like food. Additionally, we expected that individuals’ characteristics like preferred intensity, physical activity and body characteristics are associated with discount rates. Methods: 71 participants took part in four sessions. The sessions were designed to let participants select their preferred exercise intensity on a treadmill. Participants were asked to adjust their speed for optimizing pleasantness over an exercise period of up to 30 minutes, heart rate and pleasantness rating was measured. In further sessions, the established exercise intensity was modified and tested on perceptual validity. In the last exercise session rates of perceived exertion was measured on the preferred intensity level. Furthermore, participants filled in questionnaires related to physical activity, mood, craving, and impulsivity and answered choice questions on a bespoke computer task to establish discounting rates of their preferred exercise (kex), their favorite food (kfood) and a value-matching amount of money (kmoney). Results: Participants self-selected preferred speed was 5.5±2.24 km/h, at a heart rate of 120.7±23.5, and perceived exertion scale of 10.13±2.06. This shows that participants preferred a light exercise intensity with low to moderate cardiovascular strain based on perceived pleasantness. Computer assessment of discounting rates revealed that exercise was quickly discounted like a consumable reward, no significant difference between kfood and kex (kfood =0.322±0.263; kex=0.223±0.203). However, kmoney (kmoney=0.080±0.02) was significantly lower than the rates of exercise and food. Moreover, significant associations were found between preferred speed and kex (r=-0.302) and between physical activity levels and preferred speed (r=0.324). Outcomes show that participants perceived and discounted self-selected exercise like an established reward (food and money) but was discounted more like consumable rewards. Moreover, exercise discounting was quicker in individuals who preferred lower speeds, being less physically active. This may show that in a choice conflict between exercise and food the delay of exercise (because of distance) might disadvantage exercise as the chosen behavior particular in sedentary people. Conclusion: exercise can be perceived as a reward and is discounted quickly in time like food. Pleasant exercise experience is connected to low to moderate cardiovascular and perceptual strain.

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